Getting Started

Roslyn analyzers for sagas

Component: NServiceBus
NuGet Package: NServiceBus (9.x)

Starting in NServiceBus version 7.7, Roslyn analyzers are packaged with the NServiceBus package that analyze the code in sagas and make suggestions for improvements, directly in the editor.

Non-mapping expression used in ConfigureHowToFindSaga method

  • Rule ID: NSB0003
  • Severity: Warning, Error starting in NServiceBus version 8
  • Example message: The ConfigureHowToFindSaga method should only contain mapping expressions (i.e. 'mapper.MapSaga().ToMessage()') and not contain any other logic.

The ConfigureHowToFindSaga method is executed to determine the mappings between incoming messages and stored saga data. Arbitrary statements or calls to other methods, while they may be valid C#, are not valid in this method.

See message correlation for details of how to map incoming messages to stored saga data.

Saga mapping expressions can be simplified

  • Rule ID: NSB0004, NSB0018
  • Severity: Warning (NSB0004), Info (NSB0018)
  • Example message: The saga mapping contains multiple .ToSaga(…) expressions which can be simplified using mapper.MapSaga(…).ToMessage(…) syntax.

The original NServiceBus saga mapping API required repeating the .ToSaga(…) expressions for each call to .ConfigureMapping(…).

The IDE will raise a diagnostic for mapping expressions like this:

protected override void ConfigureHowToFindSaga(SagaPropertyMapper<SagaData> mapper)
    mapper.ConfigureMapping<OrderPlaced>(msg => msg.OrderId).ToSaga(sagaData => sagaData.OrderId);
    mapper.ConfigureMapping<OrderBilled>(msg => msg.OrderId).ToSaga(sagaData => sagaData.OrderId);
    mapper.ConfigureMapping<OrderShipped>(msg => msg.OrderId).ToSaga(sagaData => sagaData.OrderId);

The analyzer will also offer a code fix that will automatically rewrite the code to look like this:

protected override void ConfigureHowToFindSaga(SagaPropertyMapper<SagaData> mapper)
    mapper.MapSaga(saga => saga.OrderId)
        .ToMessage<OrderPlaced>(msg => msg.OrderId)
        .ToMessage<OrderBilled>(msg => msg.OrderId)
        .ToMessage<OrderShipped>(msg => msg.OrderId);

The simplified syntax removes duplication and reduces confusion since the .ToSaga(…) mappings in the old syntax must match in order to be valid.

The diagnostics NSB0004 and NSB0018 are the same, but with different severity in different contexts. When only one mapping expression exists, there is no duplication, so NSB0018 is presented at level Info. When two or more mapping expressions exist, duplication is now present, so NSB0004 is presented as a Warning.

Saga can only define a single correlation property on the saga data

  • Rule ID: NSB0005
  • Severity: Error
  • Example message: The saga can only map the correlation ID to one property on the saga data class.

When using the .ConfigureMapping<T>(…).ToSaga(…) mapping pattern, all of the .ToSaga(…) expressions must agree and point to the same property on the saga data class.

This was a runtime error in NServiceBus 7.6 and below, but the analyzer raises the error as more direct feedback at compile time.

Once all the .ToSaga(…) expressions agree, NSB0004: Saga mapping expressions can be simplified will be invoked, and the code fix can be used to simplify the saga mapping expression so that .ToSaga(…) mappings are not duplicated.

Message that starts the saga does not have a message mapping

  • Rule ID: NSB0006
  • Severity: Warning, Error starting in NServiceBus version 8
  • Example message: Saga MySaga implements IAmStartedByMessages<MyMessage> but does not provide a mapping for that message type. In the ConfigureHowToFindSaga method, after calling mapper.MapSaga(saga => saga.CorrelationPropertyName), add .ToMessage<MyMessage>(msg => msg.PropertyName) to map a message property to the saga correlation ID, or .ToMessageHeader<MyMessage>("HeaderName") to map a header value that will contain the correlation ID.

A message type identified by IAmStartedByMessages<TMessage> means that that type of message can start the saga. Because there may not yet be any saga data when this message is received, a message identified in this way must have an associated message mapping in the ConfigureHowToFindSaga() method, otherwise it would be impossible to know if saga data had already been created.

The code fix will attempt to rewrite the ConfigureHowToFindSaga() method and generate the missing mapping. If the existing mapping expressions already identify a correlation id (i.e. sagaData.OrderId) and the message type being mapped has a property with a matching name (i.e. message.OrderId) then the mapping will automatically use that property name. Otherwise, the code fix will generate a mapping expression with placeholders to fill in.

Saga data property is not writeable

  • Rule ID: NSB0007
  • Severity: Warning, Error starting in NServiceBus version 8
  • Example message: Saga data property MySagaData.MyPropertydoes not have a public setter. This could interfere with loading saga data. Add a public setter.

Many saga persistence libraries use serialization and deserialization to store and load saga data, respectively. It's not always possible for serializers to set values unless the property is both marked as public and also has a public setter.

A saga data class is not a good place to employ specialized data access patterns to restrict write access to certain properties. Saga data classes should be considered as internal storage fully owned by the saga, and are best implemented as simple properties like public string PropertyName { get; set; } without any access modifiers.

Saga message mappings are not needed for timeouts

  • Rule ID: NSB0008
  • Severity: Warning
  • Example message: Message type MyMessage is mapped as IHandleTimeouts<MyMessage>, which do not require saga mapping because timeouts have the saga's Id embedded in the message. You can remove this mapping expression.

When sagas request timeouts, the delayed message is stamped with a header that includes the full saga ID. This enables the lookup of the correct saga data without requiring a mapping in the ConfigureHowToFindSaga() method. Removing the mapping will have no effect on the saga's ability to find the correct saga data when the timeout is processed, and it can be safely removed.

A saga cannot use the Id property for a Correlation ID

  • Rule ID: NSB0009
  • Severity: Warning, Error starting in NServiceBus version 8
  • Example message: A saga cannot map to the saga data's Id property, regardless of casing. Select a different property (such as OrderId, CustomerId) that relates all of the messages handled by this saga.

The Id property of a saga (defined by the required IContainSagaData interface) is reserved for use by the saga. It cannot be used as a correlation ID by mapping to it in the ConfigureHowToFindSaga() method.

In addition, some saga persistence libraries, such as SQL Persistence, store the saga's Id value in a column, and the column names are commonly case-insensitive. This means that other casings of Id (e.g. ID, id, or even iD) are also not allowed.

Message types should not be used as saga data properties

  • Rule ID: NSB0010
  • Severity: Warning
  • Example message: Using the message type MyMessage to store message contents in saga data is not recommended, as it creates unnecessary coupling between the structure of the message and the stored saga data, making both more difficult to evolve.

When a saga receives a message, it can be tempting to insert the whole message into the saga data.

However, this creates unintended coupling between the saga data and the message contract.

The saga data class is wholly owned and managed by the saga, and represents the internal stored state of that saga. It must be able to be stored to disk and reloaded perhaps minutes, hours, or even days/years later. I.e. it must be durable.

On the other hand, the message is more ephemeral. It only needs to be stable long enough to deal with any messages currently in-flight at the time a new version of a software system is released. Its ownership is different, and needs to be able to change over time.

By storing a message type inside the saga data, the ephemeral message structure must be locked down by the same rules as the saga data, making it harder for the saga and the other message endpoints it exchanges messages with to evolve.

Correlation ID property must be a supported type

  • Rule ID: NSB0011
  • Severity: Error
  • Example message: A saga correlation property must be one of the following types: string, Guid, long, ulong, int, uint, short, ushort

The correlation property represents the logical identity of the stored saga data. It needs to be something easily represented by nearly every saga persistence library. For example, DateTime is a bad correlation property type, because it is represented differently on different storage systems, such as between relational SQL tables and NoSQL databases, or even in different amounts of precision in fractions of a second that are stored between different relational database systems.

Prior to NServiceBus version 7.7, this check was a runtime error. In NServiceBus version 7.7 and above, the analyzer diagnostic raises this feedback at compile time.

Saga data classes should inherit ContainSagaData

  • Rule ID: NSB0012
  • Severity: Warning
  • Example message: It's easier to inherit the class ContainSagaData, which contains all the necessary properties to implement IContainSagaData, than to implement IContainSagaData directly.

The generic class constraints on Saga<TSagaData> require the saga data class to implement the IContainSagaData interface, which specifies properties required by the saga infrastructure. However, it is much easier to directly inherit ContainSagaData, which already specifies these properties.

A benefit to inheriting the ContainSagaData class is that in NServiceBus version 7 and above, the implemented properties are decorated with [EditorBrowsable(EditorBrowsableState.Never)], which means that those properties that are only needed by the saga infrastructure will not appear in IntelliSense. So it is less likely that one of these reserved properties will be used accidentally.

One exception comes when using NHibernate's [RowVersion] attribute to control optimistic concurrency. This attribute is not compatible with derived classes. In this case the saga data class must implement IContainSagaData directly. For this scenario, the NSB0012 diagnostic can be suppressed to remove the warning.

Reply in Saga should be ReplyToOriginator

  • Rule ID: NSB0013
  • Severity: Info
  • Example message: In a Saga, context.Reply() will reply to the sender of the immediate message, which isn't common. To reply to the message that started the saga, use the saga's ReplyToOriginator() method.

Using context.Reply(…) in a message handler is fairly common, but it is less common (and can be confusing) when used in a saga.

Calling .Reply(…) always replies to the immediate message. Imagine a saga is started by Msg1, which sends DoSomething to an external handler, and that handler replies with a DoSomethingResponse. If the saga calls context.Reply(…) within the handler for DoSomethingResponse, the reply will be sent to the handler that processed DoSomething.

More often, a reply in a saga should instead use .ReplyToOriginator(…). In the example above, this will go to the endpoint that originally sent the Msg1 to start the saga, which is most often the desired effect when used in a saga.

Saga should not have intermediate base class

  • Rule ID: NSB0014
  • Severity: Warning
  • Example message: A saga should not have an intermediate base class and should inherit directly from NServiceBus.Saga.

Sagas should not use a base class (i.e. MySaga : MyAbstractSaga<TSagaData>) to provide shared functionality to multiple saga types. While this may work for sagas using Learning Persistence, some persistence libraries such as SQL Persistence are unable to generate database scripts when sagas are constructed in this way.

A better way to provide shared functionality to multiple saga types and reduce code duplication is to use extension methods.

Saga should not implement IHandleSagaNotFound

  • Rule ID: NSB0015
  • Severity: Warning, Error starting in NServiceBus version 8
  • Example message: A saga should not implement IHandleSagaNotFound, as this catch-all handler will handle messages where any saga is not found. Implement IHandleSagaNotFound on a separate class instead.

A "saga not found" handler provides a way to deal with messages that are not allowed to start a saga but cannot find existing saga data.

"Saga not found" handlers operate on all saga messages within an endpoint, no matter which saga the message was originally bound for. So it is misleading to implement IHandleSagaNotFound on a saga because it creates the impression that it will only handle not found messages for that specific saga, which is false.

Instead, implement IHandleSagaNotFound on an independent class.

Correlation property must match message mapping expression type

  • Rule ID: NSB0016
  • Severity: Error
  • Example message: When mapping a message to a saga, the member type on the message and the saga property must match. MySagaData.CorrelationProperty is of type string and MyMessage.CorrelationProperty is of type int.

When mapping incoming message properties to the saga's correlation property, these must be of the same type or they can't be compared.

When the correlation value can be expressed in different ways, it's best to represent the saga's correlation ID as a string. Individual message mapping expressions can format incoming values of other types into a string to match the saga's correlation value, such as this example where one message type contains the value as a Guid:

protected override void ConfigureHowToFindSaga(SagaPropertyMapper<SagaData> mapper)
    mapper.MapSaga(saga => saga.StringValue)
        .ToMessage<MessageWithString>(msg => msg.StringValue)
        .ToMessage<MessageWithGuid>(msg => msg.GuidValue.ToString("N"));
[System.Diagnostics.CodeAnalysis.SuppressMessage("NServiceBus.Sagas", "NSB0005:Saga can only define a single correlation property on the saga data", Justification = "Documenting invalid states")]
[System.Diagnostics.CodeAnalysis.SuppressMessage("NServiceBus.Sagas", "NSB0017:ToSaga mapping must point to a property", Justification = "Documenting invalid states")]
protected override void ConfigureHowToFindSaga(SagaPropertyMapper<SagaData> mapper)
    mapper.MapSaga(saga => saga.OrderId)
        .ToMessage<MessageWithString>(msg => msg.StringValue);

    mapper.MapSaga(saga => saga.SomeField) // INVALID
        .ToMessage<MessageWithString>(msg => msg.StringValue);

    mapper.MapSaga(saga => saga.GuidValue.ToString()) // INVALID
        .ToMessage<MessageWithString>(msg => msg.StringValue);

When using nullable reference types, the nullability of the values also matters. A saga data class containing a nullable string? can accept a non-nullable string from a message, because the string? is more permissive than non-nullable string. However, the reverse is not true and will trigger the diagnostic.

ToSaga mapping must point to a property

  • Rule ID: NSB0017
  • Severity: Error
  • Example message: Mapping expressions for saga members must point to properties.

The "to saga" expression argument of the MapSaga(…) or ToSaga(…) methods must point directly to a property. Mapping to a field or to an expression is not valid.

Mapping directly to a property is valid:

mapper.MapSaga(saga => saga.OrderId)

Mapping to a field or an arbitrary expression is invalid:

mapper.MapSaga(saga => saga.SomeField) // INVALID

Mapping to an arbitrary expression is also invalid:

mapper.MapSaga(saga => saga.GuidValue.ToString()) // INVALID