Azure Cosmos DB Persistence

NuGet Package: NServiceBus.Persistence.CosmosDB (1.x)
Target Version: NServiceBus 7.x

Uses the Azure Cosmos DB NoSQL database service for storage.

It is important to read and understand partitioning in Azure Cosmos DB before using NServiceBus.Persistence.CosmosDB.

Persistence at a glance

For a description of each feature, see the persistence at a glance legend.

Supported storage typesSagas, Outbox
TransactionsUsing TransactionalBatch, with caveats
Concurrency controlOptimistic concurrency
Scripted deploymentNot supported
InstallersContainer is created by installers.
The Outbox feature requires partition planning.


Add a NuGet package reference to NServiceBus.Persistence.CosmosDB. Configure the endpoint to use the persistence through the following configuration API:

    .CosmosClient(new CosmosClient("ConnectionString"));

Customizing the database used

By default, the persister will store records in a database named NServiceBus and use a container per endpoint using the endpoint name as to name the container.

Customize the database name using the following configuration API:

    .CosmosClient(new CosmosClient("ConnectionString"))

Customizing the container used

Set the default container using the following configuration API:

    .CosmosClient(new CosmosClient("ConnectionString"))
        containerName: "ContainerName",
        partitionKeyPath: "/partition/key/path");

When installers are enabled the default container will be created if it doesn't exist. To opt-out from creating the default container either disable the installers or use

    .CosmosClient(new CosmosClient("ConnectionString"))
        containerName: "ContainerName",
        partitionKeyPath: "/partition/key/path")
The transactions documentation details additional options on how to configure NServiceBus to specify the container using the incoming message headers or contents.

Customizing the CosmosClient provider

In cases when the CosmosClient is configured and used via dependency injection a custom provider can be implemented

class CustomCosmosClientProvider
    : IProvideCosmosClient
    // get fully configured via DI
    public CustomCosmosClientProvider(CosmosClient cosmosClient)
        Client = cosmosClient;
    public CosmosClient Client { get; }

and registered on the container

endpointConfiguration.RegisterComponents(c => c.ConfigureComponent<CustomCosmosClientProvider>(DependencyLifecycle.SingleInstance));

Provisioned throughput rate-limiting

When using provisioned throughput it is possible for the CosmosDB service to rate-limit usage, resulting in "request rate too large" exceptions indicated by the 429 status code.

When using the Cosmos DB persistence with the outbox enabled, "request rate too large" errors may result in handler re-execution and/or duplicate message dispatches depending on which operation is throttled.
Microsoft provides guidance on how to diagnose and troubleshoot request rate too large exceptions.

The Cosmos DB SDK provides a mechanism to automatically retry collection operations when rate-limiting occurs. Besides changing the provisioned RUs or switching to the serverless tier, those settings can be adjusted to help prevent messages from failing during spikes in message volume.

These settings may be set when initializing the CosmosClient via the CosmosClientOptions MaxRetryAttemptsOnRateLimitedRequests and MaxRetryWaitTimeOnRateLimitedRequests properties:

    .CosmosClient(new CosmosClient("ConnectionString", new CosmosClientOptions
        MaxRetryWaitTimeOnRateLimitedRequests = TimeSpan.FromSeconds(30),
        MaxRetryAttemptsOnRateLimitedRequests = 9

They may also be set when using a CosmosClientBuilder via the WithThrottlingRetryOptions method:

var cosmosClientBuilder = new CosmosClientBuilder("ConnectionString")
       maxRetryWaitTimeOnThrottledRequests: TimeSpan.FromSeconds(30),
       maxRetryAttemptsOnThrottledRequests: 9



The Cosmos DB persister supports using the Cosmos DB transactional batch API. However, Cosmos DB only allows operations to be batched if all operations are performed within the same logical partition key. This is due to the distributed nature of the Cosmos DB service, which does not support distributed transactions.

The transactions documentation provides additional details on how to configure NServiceBus to resolve the incoming message to a specific partition key to take advantage of this Cosmos DB feature.

Outbox cleanup

When the outbox is enabled, the deduplication data is kept for seven days by default. To customize this time frame, use the following API:

var outbox = endpointConfiguration.EnableOutbox();

Outbox cleanup depends on the Cosmos DB time-to-live feature. Failure to remove the expired outbox records is caused by a misconfigured collection that has time-to-live disabled. Refer to the Cosmos DB documentation to configure the collection correctly.


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